Pseudocollinia HISTOPHAGOUS CILIATES INFECT KRILL IN THE PACIFIC AND ATLANTIC OCEANS AND POSSIBLY WORLDWIDE

Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez, So Kawaguchi

Abstract


The genus Pseudocollinia (Apostomatida, Pseudocolliniidae) currently includes four species (P. beringensis, P. oregonensis, P. brintoni, and P. similis) that infect adults of seven numerically dominant krill species (Order Euphausiacea) in the northeastern Pacific (Bering Sea-to-Gulf of California). In this review, we found four reports in other parts of the world of misidentified or unidentified protists infecting krill. Based on their morphology, cell size and infection of the hemocoel’s host, we infer they are histophagous Pseudocollinia ciliates. We thus conclude that previous reports of protists (identified as microsporidians) infecting Thysanoessa inermis in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean (Bay of Fundy) and unidentified endoparasite ciliates infecting the Euphausia superba in the Southern Ocean (Admiralty Bay, King George Island), Euphausia pacifica in Sanriku, Japan and Euphausia similis var. armata in Tasmania, Australia are actually Pseudocollinia parasitoid ciliates that await to be morphologically and genetically described. This review provides strong evidence that apostome Pseudocollinia ciliates are widespread distributed in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, infecting at least nine krill species from Arctic–to–Antarctic zoogeographic regions, having perhaps worldwide distribution as several of their krill hosts. Future studies should focus on discovering parasitoid ciliates in other krill species, as well as in other phytoplankton and zooplankton taxonomic groups.

Ciliados histiófagos Pseudocollinia que infectan krill en los oceános Pacífico y
Atlántico y posiblemente en el resto del mundo

El género Pseudocollinia (Apostomatida, Pseudocolliniidae) actualmente incluye cuatro especies (P. beringensis, P. oregonensis, P. brintoni y P. similis) que han sido descubiertas infectando especímenes adultos de siete especies de krill (Orden Euphausiacea) numéricamente dominantes en el Pacífico nororiental (del Mar de Bering al Golfo de California). En esta revisión encontramos cuatro publicaciones que indican que estos ciliados se encuentran en otras partes del mundo pero que estos protistas han sido identificados erróneamente o no fueron identificados taxonómicamente. En la presente revisión se infiere que estos protistas son ciliados del género Pseudocollinia debido a que infectan krill, su morfología y tamaño celular, así como su localización de infección en el hemocele del huésped. Por lo tanto, concluimos que los reportes previos de protistas (identificados como microsporidios) descubiertos infectando a Thysanoessa inermis en el Océano Atlántico noroccidental (Bahía de Fundy) y los ciliados endoparásitos no identificados que infectan al krill Antárctico Euphausia superba en el Océano Austral (Bahía Almiralty, Isla King George), Euphausia pacifica en Sanriku, Japón y Euphausia similis var. armata en Tasmania, Australia también son ciliados parasitoides del género Pseudocollinia, pero que esperan ser descritos morfológicamente y genéticamente en el futuro. Esta revisión proporciona evidencia de que los ciliados Pseudocollinia están ampliamente distribuidos en los océanos Pacífico y Atlántico, infectando al menos nueve de las especies de hospederos de krill de regiones zoogeográficas Árticas a Antárticas teniendo una distribución probablemente mundial; como ocurre en varias especies de krill. Estudios futuros deben centrarse en descubrir los ciliados de parasitoides en otras especies de krill y en otros grupos taxonómicos de fitoplancton y zooplancton.


Keywords


Collinia; Pseudocollinia; Parasitoid; Apostome cilliates; Euphausiacea; distribution; zoogeography

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References


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